Support For Adult Mental Health – Part 2

by Colleen Hervey, CA State PTA Family Engagement Commissioner, Derby Pattengill, CA State PTA Health and Community Concerns Vice-President, and Justine Fischer, Community Director for CalHope Schools Initiative Partnership

November 2022 Family EngagementAs parents and/or caregivers, we want what’s best for our kids. We want them to be happy, healthy, loved, nourished, protected, educated, inspired, curious, and to have the tools they need to reach their potential. Children can bring us such joy, but also such worry. Often, we are unprepared to navigate the toll and stress our worry and our own parental anxiety causes us. In our effort to make sure all is well for them, we often neglect our own mental health needs. 

Parents/caregivers sometimes need assurances that self-care isn’t selfish! Taking care of ourselves gives us the bandwidth, strength and resilience to be positive influences in the lives of our families and those around us. 

PTAs can support the families they serve by helping them access the wealth of free resources available for adults. One example is the no-cost, evidenced-based set of resources available through the CalHOPE Schools Initiative. As described in a prior post, this initiative is a partnership of three organizations; All it Takes, iMPACTFUL, and Z-Cares. The resources provided include films that spark conversations about mental health, curriculum and support materials for educators and parents, and programming that supports social-emotional learning.

One of the most useful tools for parents are the 5 Adult Social and Emotional Learning Muscles mentioned in the All it Takes Building Trusted Spaces professional development. These are strategies for creating trusting relationships with young people while maintaining your authority and credibility.  

  • Quit Taking It Personal (QTIP) – offering the benefit of the doubt when interactions feel hurtful.
  • Communicating With I-Statements 
  • Ask vs Tell – recognizing and asking for what you need, rather than telling what’s wrong 
  • Storytelling – telling stories to rely feelings, rather than using them to make a point 
  • Walk The Talk – modeling in words, actions and attitudes what you expect from them 

These are valuable tools to use when interacting with your children at home or at school. For more information about them, visit  

Other helpful resources for parental/caregiver mental health

This webpage from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides additional information about the connection between children and parents’ mental health. 

National PTA provides resources for both parents and PTA leaders in its Healthy Lifestyles section titled Healthy Minds. California State PTA also provides additional insights and resources.

In our online world, there are many resources available to help families cope with stress and protect their mental well-being, from this short animated video about stress to a whole library of calming strategies provided by the Sacramento City Unified School District. 

As a reminder for all adults, when you fly you are instructed to put your own oxygen mask on first, if needed, before helping others. That’s because we are best able to serve others when we are at our best, modeling expected behavior and managing our own stress and anxiety. 


Support For Mental Health: The CalHOPE Schools Initiative

October 2022 Family Engagement BannerAdults who care for kids want what’s best for them, whether they’re in the role of parent, caregiver, teacher, or something else. What’s best includes providing young people with care that helps them to be happy, healthy, loved, nourished, protected, educated, inspired, curious, and to have the tools they need to reach their potential. 

That can feel particularly difficult today. Increasingly, adults are struggling to navigate the toll their own stress and worry are causing. In an effort to make sure all is well for our kids, we often neglect our own mental health needs. 

Fortunately, a new initiative launched by the California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) provides no-cost resources to schools and educational agencies across California to promote mental health and wellness. Leaders from local PTA units, councils and districts can work with their communities and educators to bring the resources from the CalHOPE Schools Initiatives to families.

The CalHOPE Schools Initiative links three powerful resources together at an easy access point for all California educators, staff, students, parents, and school volunteers. Recognizing the impact of stress, trauma, anxiety, and other challenges on mental health, the initiative offers multiple opportunities for school communities to support relationships, build resilience, and provide inspiration and support for students, educators, and families. The resources come from three different organizations that have formed a partnership. They include:: 

  • All It Takes, which has developed A Trusted Space: Redirecting Grief to Growth 
  • Impactful, which developed Angst: Building Resilience, and 
  • Z-Cares, which developed Look at Me Now: Stories of Hope

The resources provided include films that spark conversations about mental health, curriculum and support materials for educators and parents, and programming that supports social-emotional learning.

Accessing the materials requires a simple registration and sign-in process whether you want to see them as an Individual, on behalf of your association, or bring them to the attention of school officials. 

Thanks to the CalHOPE Schools Initiative, PTA leaders can feel confident helping their communities address issues of mental health and well-being. They can play an important role in creating trusted, safe spaces and relationships where each member of the community feels supported. 

On the California State PTA website you will find additional resources devoted to the topic of mental health. 

National 988 Crisis Hotline is Now Up and Running

by California State PTA Health and Community Concerns Commission

A new nationwide hotline phone number, 988, will provide 24/7 free and confidential emotional support to those struggling with a mental health crisis. Promoted as an alternative to 911, 988 is specifically for people experiencing mental health emergencies.

Federal legislation established the 988 hotline.  It also mandated the development of a strategy to provide specialized services for LGBTQ youth. Research shows these youth are more than four times more likely to contemplate suicide than their heterosexual peers. Officials say they hope the new shorter phone number will be easier for Americans to remember, allowing more people in crisis, including LGBTQ youth, in particular, to get the help they need.

Those experiencing a mental health crisis can call or text the three-digit number ― 988 ― to access the all-hours free and confidential emotional support hotline. Previously, those seeking support would have to call 1-800-273-8255 (1-800-273-TALK). That number will remain in effect.

“When people call, text, or chat 988, they will connect to trained counselors that are part of the existing National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network,” the network’s website says. “These trained counselors will listen, provide support, and connect callers to resources if necessary.”

If you or someone you know needs help, dial 988 or call 1-800-273-8255 for the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. You can also get support via text by visiting Outside of the U.S., please visit the International Association for Suicide Prevention for a database of resources.

Proposed State Budget Is A Cause For Guarded Optimism

By: Beth Meyerhoff, California State PTA Legislative Advocate 

Each January in California, a new legislative year kicks off with the governor submitting a proposed state budget. This year, the Governor’s Budget proposal includes funding for many PTA priorities. Nevertheless, in a recent statement, California State PTA  noted “While this proposed budget significantly increases investments in California education, it does not address the inadequate base funding of our schools”

On January 24, 2022, more than 100 people joined the California State PTA Legislation Team virtually to learn more from School finance expert Kevin Gordon, president and a co-founding partner of the Capitol Advisors Group. Originally slated to speak during the postponed Legislative Conference, Mr. Gordon’s presentation enabled advocates across the state to participate. Watch the recording now.

Gordon noted that while California lags behind the rest of the country in education spending, the Governor’s proposed budget could close the gap for California in education spending. (See the  proposed budget by clicking here)  A major caveat for local school districts is that some of the proposed budget increase is one-time money and some is restricted. That means that not all districts/schools will see the same increases.

The budget proposal increases state funding for K-12 schools by  $16 billion over the current year, due to the Proposition 98 minimum guarantee, (Here is a basic explanation of Proposition 98 and how state funding and local property taxes are combined to fund schools.) Gordon noted that California schools have never seen this kind of investment in public education before and the nonpartisan Legislative Analyst’s Office (LAO) projects the entire budget to be $10 billion higher than Governor Newsom’s projections, Gordon expects the financial picture to be even stronger in May.

The Budget Recommends New Investments

In his presentation, Gordon identified three key policy areas in which the budget proposes new investments:

  • Funding for Early Education
  • Ongoing money for a phased-in 3-year rollout for preschool and universal Kindergarten and Transitional Kindergarten (TK).
  • $670 million this year, increasing to $2.7 billion. 
  • Investment in extended learning
  • Permanent, ongoing funding. 
  • Funding increased from $1 billion last year to almost $5 billion this year. 
  • $4.4 billion for learning and almost $1 billion in one-time funding for the arts and music. The ongoing challenge remains Covid and staffing issues. 
  • No opt-out: districts must spend this money on extended learning. 
  • Money may not be the issue in supporting extended learning – it may be an issue of capacity.
  • Funding for Universal meal programs
  • $700 million so that all students can now eat at school and no longer have to apply or qualify for free or reduced priced meals. 
  • School districts must apply for the federal program and drain down the maximum under the school meals program, then California will fund the difference.

Some Specific Funding Needs were Not Addressed

Despite the dramatic increase in funding contained in the governor’s proposal, Gordon identified several areas of opportunity that he expects will get legislative attention as the session progresses.

“The budget is not comprehensive enough around school facilities,” he said. General fund money of $3 billion is allocated for school facilities. Gordon believes a state bond of around $10-15 billion is needed to fund the necessary modernization and new construction needs. Local bonds will not raise enough funds. He noted that Assembly Bill 75 (O’Donnell) would fund $10 billion for school facilities. (Link to bill:

In addition, Gordon said an increase in base funding for school districts needs to continue to be a focus. “Focusing on the base makes sure that we are paying attention to all kids. Targeted funds for some do not leave sufficient funds to keep schools open for all.” He also noted that the Cost of Living Allowance (COLA) is 5.3 percent this year to cover increased costs. However, inflation is approximately 7 percent.

PTA Advocates’ Questions Answered

Q: How should supplemental and concentration grants be calculated?
A: Schools are allocated a base grant plus extra funding (supplemental) for certain categories of students plus additional funding (concentration) if the identified students exceed 55% of the student population. The number of students who count for these supplemental and concentration funds was in part determined by the number of applications for free or reduced-price lunch. California needs a new metric to calculate supplemental and concentration grants now that applications for free and reduced meals will no longer be required.

Q: What is the discussion around Average Daily Attendance (ADA) vs. Enrollment to determine local school funding?
A: Schools in California are funded based on their Average Daily Attendance (ADA). There was a drop-off in attendance for most districts in 2021-22, so the state allocated funds based on ADA from 2019-20. School districts that experienced increases in ADA have complained that this is not fair for them. 

Overall, there is long-term declining enrollment in addition to recent, multi-year enrollment declines in most districts due to Covid. Currently, school districts can be funded based on the current year’s ADA or the prior year’s ADA. The governor has proposed several funding scenarios where districts can choose: 1) the current year; 2) the prior year; 3) the average of the past 3 years. Gordon is advocating that districts be able to use enrollment in 2019-20 as an option as well.

State Senator Anthony Portantino proposes a different approach with Senate Bill 830. It would fund school districts based on enrollment, instead of ADA, and create a new categorical program. Under his bill, funding is determined by calculating ADA and then calculating enrollment and the difference is given to districts. Half of the difference is to be used permanently to address truancy. Gordon’s suggestion is to reduce the amount from 50 percent to 10 percent to be used for truancy and once truancy issues are resolved, districts can use the variance for other needs.

Q: What funding is proposed for Special Education and Mental Health?
A: The Governor’s budget proposes $500 million for special education expenses with some changes to a district-centric model rather than a Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) model. However, a proposal to collect the federal government’s share of special education is also necessary. 

There is good news in the Governor’s proposed budget as well as areas of opportunity. Increased funding for aging school facilities will address modernization and safety concerns. Raising the base grant for ALL students should remain a high priority in order for California to move from one of the lowest states in the country in education spending to one of the highest.

Multiple Bills Addressing Students’ Mental Health are Now Law

By Beth Meyerhoff, California State PTA Advocate

Fear and isolation heightened during the pandemic have reinforced California State PTA’s long-standing commitment to the mental health of children and the need for adult education to address youth mental health challenges. Our advocacy team applauds Governor Gavin Newsom’s signing of a trio of bills to support the mental health needs of students. 

Senate Bill 14 (Portantino) mandates that student absences for mental and behavioral health are treated the same as excused absences for physical health.

Thirty percent of high school students report experiencing symptoms of depression and COVID-19 has further increased the mental health issues children face according to reports cited by Senator Portantino, the author of this bill.

Thanks to SB 14, behavioral health will now be included within the “illness categories” that are legally considered excused absences (Education Code Section 48205). In addition, the California Department of Education (CDE) must identify a training program to address youth behavioral health.

California State PTA believes behavioral health evaluation and services are critical for student development. We support providing information and education to understand and sustain children, youth, and family behavioral health and social-emotional development.

Senate Bill 224 (Portantino) requires middle and high schools to include instruction in mental health if the schools offer courses in health education.

For schools that offer health education courses, this bill requires that those courses include mental health instruction. The course shall cover symptoms of common mental health challenges, promoting mental health wellness, and how to find assistance from professionals, among other requirements. Additionally, it shall include developing an awareness of mental health challenges across all populations and “the impact of race, ethnicity and culture on the experience and treatment of mental health challenges.” The State Department of Education must develop a plan to expand mental health instruction in California public schools on or before January 1, 2024.

According to Senator Portantino’s office, “Education about mental health is one of the best ways to increase awareness, empower students to seek help, and reduce the stigma associated with mental health challenges.”

California State PTA supports age-appropriate social and emotional learning and mental health education for all students. As an advocacy organization, California State PTA supports legislation that creates a safe and accepting environment in schools. 

Assembly Bill 309 (Gabriel) requires the California Department of Education (CDE) to develop model referral protocols for addressing pupil mental health.

The development of model mental health protocols required by this bill would guide schools and local educational agencies (LEAs) in “appropriate and timely intervention for pupil mental health concerns.” The protocols will be posted on the CDE website and used on a voluntary basis.

The Assembly Bill analysis quoted the Student Mental Health Policy Workgroup which noted the connection between mental wellness and academic achievement, attendance, and behavior. The Workgroup also said California’s educators acknowledge their lack of preparedness in addressing pupil mental health challenges as a major barrier to instruction. 

California State PTA passed its resolution, Mental Health: Treatment and Support in 1999 (reviewed 2017), calling on “ the California State PTA and its units, councils and districts [to] urge that members of the education community and local law enforcement agencies receive training to ensure that peace officers and educators can recognize symptoms of mental illness and appropriately respond when dealing with persons, especially children, and youth, who show signs of mental illness.” 

In addition, at the 2020 California State PTA Convention, members passed a resolution Mental Health Service for Our Children and Youth to support mental health wellness and social-emotional learning policies, including staff training.

Parents Can Help Prevent Bullying

By California State PTA Health & Community Concerns Commission

October is Bullying Prevention Awareness Month. Bullying is a serious issue at home and in school, and parents and caring adults can play pivotal roles in creating healthy, safe school and community climates.

In a 2019 publication, the National Center for Education Statistics reported that one out of five students in the U.S. said they had been bullied. Researchers have also found that bullied students are more likely to take a weapon to school, get involved in physical fights, and suffer from anxiety and depression, health problems, and mental health problems. They also suffer academically (especially high-achieving black and Latinx students). Research suggests that schools where students report a more severe bullying climate score worse on standardized assessments than schools with a better climate.

Five Tips For Parents To Help Prevent Bullying
Parents and guardians are among a school’s best allies in bullying prevention:

  • Talk with and listen to your children every day. Ask questions about their school day, including experiences on the way to and from school, lunch, and recess. Ask about their peers. Children who feel comfortable sharing experiences with their parents before they are involved in bullying are more likely to involve them after.
  • Spend time at school, especially during recess. Schools can lack the resources to provide all students individualized attention during “free” time, like recess. Volunteer to coordinate games and activities that encourage children to interact with their peers. 
  • Set a good example. Children are observing when you get angry at a waiter, another driver, etc. Model effective communication techniques, especially when they are present. As puts it, “Any time you speak to another person in a mean or abusive way, you’re teaching your child that bullying is okay.”
  • Create healthy anti-bullying habits. Starting as young as possible, coach your children on both, what not to do (push, tease, and be mean to others) and what to do (be kind, empathize, and take turns). Also coach your child on what to do if someone is mean to him or to another (get an adult, tell the bully to stop, walk away and ignore the bully).
  • Make sure your child understands that bullying is not okay. Explicitly explain what it is and that it’s not normal or tolerable for them to bully, be bullied, or stand by and watch other kids be bullied.

Parents Can Help Stop Online Bullying As Well
Kids may not always recognize teasing as bullying. Some kids also may be too embarrassed or ashamed to talk to their parents about it.

That’s why it’s important to talk about online and digital behavior before your child starts interacting with others online and with devices, as this article from Common Sense Media suggests. 

Additional Resources

Click here to access the California State PTA’s bullying prevention resources, which include advice about preparing your kid for going online or getting a cell phone, and advice about what to do if you know he or she has been bullied online.

Click here to access National PTA bullying prevention resources and an informative podcast that includes strategies for supporting children who are bullied and offers advice to parents who have learned that their child is doing the bullying.

PACER provides innovative resources for students, parents, educators, and others related to bullying prevention, including a report on the latest statistics.

The website also provides valuable information on bullying prevention.

Do you have more questions?  Email

PTA leaders can spread hope and vital information to people affected by suicide

by Derby Pattengill, Vice President for Health and Community Concerns

Over the last year and a half, we have faced a pandemic, combined with a massive experiment in remote schooling, a racial justice movement stemming from police killings of Black Americans, as well as economic and political instability.  These events will have long-term effects on the mental health of students, teachers, school administrators and staff, parents, family members, friends, and acquaintances. We must make the time now to take care of ourselves and take care of each other.

Suicidal thoughts, much like mental health conditions, can affect anyone regardless of age, gender or background. In fact, suicide is often the result of an untreated mental health condition. Suicidal thoughts, although common, should not be considered normal and often indicate more serious issues.

Even before 2020, our young people were particularly vulnerable to having such thoughts. National data indicated that while 4.8% of all adults had serious thoughts of suicide, the same was true for 18.8% of high school students and 11.8% of young adults aged 18 to 25. Perhaps most alarming, nearly half of lesbian, gay, and bisexual high school students had serious thoughts of suicide. 

Did you know?

Individual Impact of Suicide:

  • 78% of all people who die by suicide are male.
  • Although more women than men attempt suicide, men are nearly 4x more likely to die by suicide.
  • Suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death among people aged 10–34 and the 10th leading cause of death overall in the U.S.
  • The overall suicide rate in the U.S. has increased by 35% since 1999.
  • 46% of people who die by suicide had a diagnosed mental health condition.
  • While nearly half of individuals who die by suicide have a diagnosed mental health condition, research shows that 90% experienced symptoms.

Community Impact of Suicide:

  • Some of the highest rates of suicide in the U.S. are among American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic white communities.
  • Lesbian, gay and bisexual youth are 4x more likely to attempt suicide than straight youth.
  • Transgender adults are nearly 12x more likely to attempt suicide than the general population.
  • Suicide is the leading cause of death for people held in local jails.

(Data from CDC, NIMH and other select sources.)

What Can I Do?

If you think a friend or family member is considering suicide, you might be afraid to bring up the subject.  Don’t be afraid.  

Talking openly about suicidal thoughts and feelings can save a life.  Talking about suicide will not give the person ideas about death.  The opposite is true–bringing up the subject of suicide and discussing it openly is one of the most helpful things you can do.  The truth is, we can all benefit from honest conversations about mental health conditions and suicide, because just one conversation can change a life.

Tell the person that you are worried about them.  Mention the warning signs you have noticed.  Ask the person if they are thinking about suicide.  If they say they are feeling hopeless or considering suicide, take them seriously.

Listen with empathy and provide support.  Express concern and reassure the person. Someone who is experiencing emotional pain or suicidal thoughts can feel isolated, even with family and friends around.

Get informed about mental health and suicide prevention. The National Alliance for Mental Illness (NAMI) provides clear, helpful information on several topics:

If you need more information, referrals, or support, contact the NAMI HelpLine or visit

Know what to do in case of a crisis. 

  • If you or someone you know is in an emergency, call 911 immediately.
  • If you are in crisis or are experiencing difficult or suicidal thoughts, call the National Suicide Hotline at 1-800-273 TALK (8255)
  • If you’re uncomfortable talking on the phone, you can also text NAMI to 741-741 to be connected to a free, trained crisis counselor on the Crisis Text Line.

Help the person create a safety plan. A safety plan is a written list of coping strategies and sources of support for people who are at high risk for suicide, and it can help guide them through a crisis and keep them safe.  Make sure the person you care about keeps the plan easily accessible in case they have thoughts of hurting themselves.

Share information about suicide prevention with your school community. Learn more at This page offers tips for knowing the signs of suicide, how to find the words to talk about suicide, and highlights the advocacy work PTA has done on this topic on behalf of our members.   

September is National Suicide Prevention Awareness Month. Sponsored by NAMI, it is a time to raise awareness on this stigmatized, and often taboo, topic. We can use this month to spread hope and vital information to people affected by suicide. It’s an ideal time to make sure that members of your community and your PTA have access to the resources they need to discuss suicide prevention and to seek help.


by Mary Perry, California State PTA Board of Managers

All over California, the back-to-school ritual has begun. This year, of course, that ritual is so different. For many students and families, it’s the first time in more than a year that in-person school has even happened.

We hear a multitude of opinions about how to keep schools safe. Governor Newsom issued an executive order calling for universal vaccinations and/or Covid testing at every school. We also have a minority of people agitating against taking safety precautions at all – no vaccines, no masking, no social distancing.

Does it all have you feeling anxious and confused?

There are some great resources available to help you and others in your PTA conquer that anxiety. 

Thankfully, the California Department of Education, the California Department of Public Health, and the U.S. Education Department are all providing solid, research-based information that can guide your actions. And in every case they have created resources directed to parents that are clear, relevant, and informative. We are trying to collect many of those resources on our California State PTA Covid 19 page, but frankly it’s hard to keep up with all that is happening. So in this blog I just want to give you the latest.

Get Vaccinated
The California Department of Education is going all in on encouraging every school staff member, every parent, and every student age 12 and older to get vaccinated. On August 11, State Superintendent Tony Thurmond hosted this Facebook Live session to do just that. [link: ]  The main advice: make a date to vaccinate!

Research on COVID and Kids
One of the most informative (and comforting) pieces of information I’ve seen is from the California Department of Public Health. Dr. Naomi Bardach is the lead for the CA Safe Schools for All project and website. (The parent page is also available here in Spanish.) She recently summarized research that is giving health experts confidence about schools reopening. Her key points:

  • Children get COVID19 less often and are less ill than adults
  •  Children most often get COVID19 from a household adult, even when attending school
  •  Schools can operate safely and successfully when key safety measures – such as masks — are in place

Dr. Bardach also explained why kids in general are less likely to get Covid-19 or to get a serious case if they do become infected. Our bodies have these ACE2 receptors, which act like doorways to let the virus into our cells. Adults have developed a lot of these receptors but children have fewer, and the younger a child is the fewer receptors or doorways they have. The virus just doesn’t have as many places where it can enter a child’s body.

Return to School Roadmap
The US Education Department has created a Return to School Roadmap, with a web-page specifically for parents. Their Parent Checklist provides straightforward advice on how parents can make sure their kids are safe as school reopens. The key items on that list include:

  • Make a plan for eligible children to get vaccinated
  • Talk to your school about health and safety protocols
  • If your child isn’t eligible yet for a vaccine, talk with them about strategies to keep them safe at school
  • Make a plan to access safe transportation to and from school
  • Talk to your child’s teacher about your child’s needs

A crucial concern for kids and adults is the impact that the pandemic has had on our mental health, sense of security, and trust in the future. Those social and emotional issues, and what we all can do to address them, will be the subject of another article soon.

Until then, get informed, stay calm, and make a date to vaccinate!

National Eating Disorders Awareness Week

The goal of National Eating Disorders Awareness Week (#NEDAwareness) is to shine the spotlight on eating disorders by educating the public, spreading a message of hope, and putting lifesaving resources into the hands of those in need.

Every Body Has a Seat at the Table. In a field where marginalized communities continue to be underrepresented, conversations on raising awareness, challenging systemic biases, and sharing stories from all backgrounds and experiences are welcomed.

For more information and to build a movement to raise awareness and support those affected by eating disorders, visit


What Are Eating Disorders?

Eating disorders are mental health conditions marked by an obsession with food or body shape.  They can affect anyone but are most prevalent among young women.

What Causes Eating Disorders?

Eating disorders may be caused by several factors including genetics, brain biology, personality traits, and cultural ideals.

  • One factor is genetics. Twin and adoption studies involving twins who were separated at birth and adopted by different families provide some evidence that eating disorders may be hereditary. This type of research has generally shown that if one twin develops an eating disorder, the other has a 50% likelihood of developing one too.
  • Personality traits are another cause. In particular, neuroticism, perfectionism, and impulsivity are three personality traits often linked to a higher risk of developing an eating disorder.
  • Other potential causes include perceived pressures to be thin, cultural preferences for thinness, and exposure to media promoting such ideals. Certain eating disorders appear to be mostly nonexistent in cultures that haven’t been exposed to Western ideals of thinness.
  • More recently, experts have proposed that differences in brain structure and biology may also play a role in the development of eating disorders.

Neuroticism: Defined as a tendency toward anxiety, depression, self-doubt, and other negative feelings.

Perfectionism: Defined as the need to be or appear to be perfect, or even to believe that it’s possible to achieve perfection. It is typically viewed as a positive trait rather than a flaw

Impulsivity: Defined as a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.

Common Types of Eating Disorders and their Symptoms

Anorexia Nervosa

People with anorexia nervosa may limit their food intake or compensate for it through various purging behaviors. They have an intense fear of gaining weight, even when severely underweight.  Many people with anorexia are often preoccupied with constant thoughts about food, and some may obsessively collect recipes or hoard food.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental health condition characterized by obsessions which lead to compulsive behaviors. People often double check to make sure they’ve locked the front door or always wear their lucky socks on game days.  OCD goes beyond double checking something or practicing a game day ritual.  Someone diagnosed with OCD feels compelled to act out certain rituals repeatedly, even if they don’t want to — and even if it complicates their life unnecessarily.

Bulimia Nervosa

People with bulimia nervosa eat large amounts of food in short periods of time, then purge. They fear gaining weight despite being at a normal weight.  Bulimia tends to develop during adolescence and early adulthood and appears to be less common among men than women.

Binge Eating Disorder

People with binge eating disorder regularly and uncontrollably consume large amounts of food in short periods of time.  Unlike people with other eating disorders, they do not purge.

Binge eating disorder is believed to be one of the most common eating disorders, especially in the United States.  It typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, although it can develop later on.  Individuals with this disorder have symptoms similar to those of bulimia or the binge eating subtype of anorexia.


Individuals with pica tend to crave and eat non-food substances. This disorder may particularly affect children, pregnant women, and individuals with mental disabilities.  Individuals with pica crave non-food substances, such as ice, dirt, soil, chalk, soap, paper, hair, cloth, wool, pebbles, laundry detergent, or cornstarch.  Individuals with pica may be at an increased risk of poisoning, infections, gut injuries, and nutritional deficiencies.  Depending on the substances ingested, pica may be fatal.

Rumination Disorder

Rumination disorder can affect people at all stages of life.  People with the condition generally regurgitate the food they’ve recently swallowed.  Then, they chew it again and either swallow it or spit it out.  This disorder can develop during infancy, childhood, or adulthood. In infants, it tends to develop between 3–12 months of age and often disappears on its own. Children and adults with the condition usually require therapy to resolve it.

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating disorder that causes people to undereat.  This is either due to a lack of interest in food or an intense distaste for how certain foods look, smell, or taste.   Although ARFID generally develops during infancy or early childhood, it can persist into adulthood. What’s more, it’s equally common among men and women. Individuals with this disorder experience disturbed eating either due to a lack of interest in eating or distaste for certain smells, tastes, colors, textures, or temperatures.

Purging disorder

Individuals with purging disorder often use purging behaviors, such as vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, or excessive exercising, to control their weight or shape. However, they do not binge.

 Night eating syndrome

Individuals with this syndrome frequently eat excessively, often after awakening from sleep.

For more information on eating disorders: